The cause of these measurable difference is likely due to the dense fibrous root system of wheat and the nitrogen derived from wheat root deposits. In 2007, a record 1.25 million acres of winter wheat were seeded in Ontario. A healthy functioning soil provides numerous local ecosystem benefits including improved water quality, flood and drought mitigation. Would you believe that some growers are adding winter wheat to their rotation to improve soil health? "They've decided there isn't enough wheat … Figure 2. 105 Ag. “Field Crop News” is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. If, for example, you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 and September 30. OMAFRA cereals specialist Peter Johnson estimates there are about 610,000 to 615,000 acres planted in Ontario, down from 1.06 million acres planted in 2013. Table 1. The southern area of this region may use wheat as pasture. PGRs can be applied to winter wheat to reduce plant height and increase stem thickness. 2015. The planting date range for that region falls between those two dates. Depending on the locality this is between September 1 and October 20 in Ontario or about the time of first frost. Farmers in Ontario were believed to have seeded roughly 700,000 acres of winter wheat in the fall of 2011, down from the usual one million, he said. So if we want a profitable wheat crop we need to pay attention to the details in the fall and give it the best chance to survive whatever Mother Nature throws it’s way! Adding winter wheat to a crop rotation can increase crop diversity while improving soil health and addressing other agronomic challenges producers are currently facing. In eastern and northern Ontario, for example, snow mould – caused by fungi that attacking snow-covered cereals – can be an issue for winter wheat that developed too much biomass early in the season. In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. Classification into spring or winter wheat is common and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. The crop covers the soil in thefall, winter and early spring, and so reduces soil erosion in therun-off water. Ontario’s 2020 winter wheat crop was still a good one, but it could have been better if not for a late turn to hotter, drier weather. Ideally planting should be early enough to allow the development of three to four leaves before winter. Prepare to plant winter wheat in the fall, approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the soil freezes, as this allows for strong root growth. Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Liquid 6-24-6 (OMAFRA Publication 811: Agronomy Guide), Table 2. Many other species of plants undergo vernalization, including a variety of fruit tree species and annual and biennial flowering plants. Most of the 2019 wheat crop was graded a No. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure 1) is a great resource. Chances increase for good establishment and successful over-wintering if it can be planted in late September or early October. The following practices can be utilized to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil: using cover crops, having a diverse crop rotation, integrating livestock, mulching/amendments, utilizing no-till, nutrient management of the soil and ecological pest management approach. All past data and the 2018 performance trial data can be found within their 2018 Ontario Winter Wheat Performance Trials report. Ontario research has also shown that dry granular fertilizers are as effective as liquid 6-24-6 (Table 1 and 2). But just how late is too late when it comes to planting winter wheat in Ontario? Winter wheat seeded at 1″ seeding depth (left) vs 1/2″ seeding depth (right). One soil health practice that can be challenging for most farms to adopt is a more diverse crop rotation. Yields are expected to average 63 bushels per acre, unchanged from last year (Blair Smith, State Statistician of USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service, New York Field Office on 8/17). According to Agricorp, just under 1 million acres of winter wheat has been planted so far in Ontario. Many other species of plants undergo vernalization, including a variety of fruit tree species and annual and biennial flowering plants. Next, ensure you are using a starter fertilizer. You may say to yourself “Yes, we know a good wheat crop starts with planting! ONTARIO’S OPTIMUM WINTER WHEAT PLANTING DATE MAP. A diverse crop rotation appears to be the toughest practice to adopt. Planting wheat on Sept 17 vs Sept 30 resulted in a substantial yield increase while also using a lower seeding rate. Classification into spring or winter wheat is common and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. Acreage for harvest is forecast at 118 thousand acres, up 23 thousand from last year. If time and weather do not permit, winter wheat might not get planted in the fall. Introduce wheat to one or two fields a year to start. However, not all producers have the same business model and soil health goals. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. Attention to detail starts with planting your crop on time (Figure 1)! Applying for a USDA conservation payment program. Hard Red Winter used to occupy up to 18 percent of wheat acres in the province, but that number has dropped to an estimated 7 per cent in recent years and Ontario mills — including P&H and ADM — have taken notice. Planting was about two weeks early this year, thanks to an early bean harvest. Wheat grows best in 70 to 75 degree Fahrenheit ((21 to 24 degrees Celsius) weather, so you should plant your wheat when the weather is approaching that temperature (and eventually rising). Rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. The fear of learning to grow a new crop was reduced through peer learning, educational programs, a dedicated local website with resources, and working with a trusted adviser or producer who have added winter wheat into their farming practice. Spring wheat can be planted as early as you can work the soil. The closer you are to one line means the optimum planting date is closer to that end of the range. When to Plant Red Winter Wheat. 1 or No. As many farmers are getting ready to begin harvest, farmers who grow winter wheat are preparing to plant. There are many reasons why growers have been planting winter wheat in eastern Nebraska. In winter wheat country – from Texas to Nebraska – winter wheat is generally planted the end of September through mid-October. Attention to detail starts with planting your crop on time (Figure 1)! Ontario’s 2020 winter wheat crop was still a good one, but it could have been better if not for a late turn to hotter, drier weather. OMAFRA Publications 811: Agronomy Guide. Some grow the crop for bedding or feed, but Kennes says the major benefit of incorporating winter wheat into rotation is the benefits to the soil. When planting later the winter wheat plant has less time available to develop roots and tillers. In winter wheat country – from Texas to Nebraska – winter wheat is generally planted the end of September through mid-October. Consider the move to fall weed control! Wheat improves nitrogen use efficiency of maize and soybean-based cropping systems, Congreves et al. Ontario winter wheat producers recently completed their 2017 harvest and are preparing for the 2018 planting season. If planting is delayed, rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. For winter wheat, the physiological stage of heading (when the ear first emerges) is delayed until the plant experiences vernalization, a period of 30 to 60 days of cold winter te… Plant winter wheat roughly one inch (2.5 centimetres) deep to prevent the crop from being subject to harsh winter conditions. You can opt-out at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link at the bottom of any email. In this rotation, two warm season crops are grown with one being a grass and one being a broadleaf with one year between the same crop types. –Excess N at planting thought to decrease winter survival –Strategy to apply N in the spring to avoid over winter … Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. On chernozem soils and in arid regions, seeds of winter wheat are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm. Dwayne Beck, a professor with South Dakota State University has long talked about rotational intensity and crop diversity. Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. As we saw with the 2019 winter wheat crop, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). “It went perfectly. More importantly it allows for proper fungicide timing in the spring and means one less thing to worry about in the busy planting season. Now and likely more so in the future, companies, consumers, and the entire supply chain are increasing interest to document sustainability down to the farm level. So what did growers who fared better than others have in common even in a year with variable moisture? There are several varieties of winter wheat grown in Ontario, and wheat breeders are interested in learning more about and furthering the crop’s resistance to major diseases by developing new varieties. Sustainability of the family farm small business includes balancing short-term and long-term profitability. Also double check that all planting equipment is in good working order well before you get to the field to avoid any further delays. Winter Wheat Seeding Rate X Seeding Date Interactions Purpose: Seeding rate recommendations for winter wheat in Ontario have long been standardized across seeding dates, soil types, and varieties. The program encourages and supports farmers in eastern Nebraska to move from a strict corn-soybean rotation to a successful flex or targeted crop rotation where some winter wheat acres are considered each year and strategically placed. As we saw in 2019, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. Long-term impact of tillage and crop rotation on soil health at four temperate agroecosystems. If so, planting begins a few weeks earlier, according to Stewart Duncan, agronomist at the Kansas State University Northeast Area Extension Office, who recommends a seeding rate of 60 to 75 pounds per … According to Ontario’s Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, producers in Ontario planted most of their intended winter wheat acres in time for good establishment before winter. Planting date. Now is the time for winter wheat producers to consider the risks their crops might face and pick the Production Insurance coverage that meets their … The southern area of this region may use wheat as pasture. L.A. Hunt, Department of Crop Science, Ontario Agricultural College . Johnson speculated that roughly 650,000 acres of winter wheat will be harvested in the province once those operations begin. There is opportunity for producers in eastern Nebraska to include winter wheat, a cool season crop, in their rotation. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). Seed winter wheat a depth of about 1 inch, any shallower and the crop becomes more vulnerable during the winter months (Figure 2). With new plant growth regulators (PGRs) entering the Ontario market, many are asking, when and where should a PGR be used? Researchers also found other benefits including increased total soil nitrogen, higher potentially mineralizable N, higher nitrogen use efficiency, reduce N rates needed in corn for maximum economic return, and higher yields in corn and soybean. Snow insulates, protecting the crown of winter wheat from the potentially lethal temperatures common to Minnesota winters. This in turn pushes winter wheat planting back. Pick fields that can gain more from the crop diversity, such as those plagued with a disease or insects, while improving soil health. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at “Field Crop News”. Seeding depth. 4. There seems to be a trend to decrease crop diversity instead of increase it, for example, in southeast Nebraska there are far less acres and farms growing oats, winter wheat, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. The 2018 growing season had its challenges with a cool, wet spring followed by hot, dry weather during the critical grain fill period. “It went perfectly. A producer could add profit by growing forage crops after wheat for themselves or getting paid by a neighbor with cattle, moving the increased yield and profit in corn and soybean years attributed to wheat back to the wheat accrual budget. When the upper layers of the soil dry out, the depth of sowing seeds on chernozems can be increased to 8 – 10 cm. Read a companion CropWatch article on the importance of, As part of the Soil Health Nexus Digital Cafe Series on August 26, 2020, Dr. Dwayne Beck with South Dakota State University, presents “, View a full list of why growers may benefit from adding winter wheat into the corn-soybean rotation along with a, Zuber et al. Logistical hurdles of only having one or two fields was solved by finding another operator to custom drill and harvest the wheat crop or starting a new custom drilling business themselves. The next four to eight weeks (October to November) allow the plant to vernalize (giving the plant the signal to flower next spring) and acclimate to the cold (harden off for the winter). Adjusting your seeding depths and populations will help compensate for the less than ideal conditions that may occur at planting. Farmers then have the option to plant spring wheat, a different variety which does not require a period of vernalization. The weather had a negative impact on yield for many while others were pleasantly surprised with yields pushing well over 100 bu/ac. Ontario’s five-year planting average is 869,000 acres. Copyright © 2018 Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, All Rights Reserved. There are several varieties of winter wheat grown in Ontario, and wheat breeders are interested in learning more about and furthering the crop’s resistance to major diseases by developing new varieties. Trials from 2005 and 2006 conducted by Ontario Soil and Crop indicate surprising results when seeding wheat very late. Overcoming some of the economic challenges included increasing awareness of the positive basis/cash price locally and finding opportunities to sell straw. If conditions are dry during planting, adjust the depth to ensure the seed is in moisture. Higher seeding rates when planting is delayed will also assist with the reduced tillering that may occur before winter. Farmers in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones should seed winter wheat in the first two weeks of September. It is generally not recommended to seed more than 10 days prior to the optimum date for your region. These aspects of soil health were increased by adding wheat into the rotation regardless of the tillage system (conventional or no-till). Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). The varieties that are now grown in Ontario are thus either introductions from the Old World, or descendants of such introductions. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map is a great resource. Adding a crop to your current rotation could benefit your integrated pest management plan by helping break disease cycles, control weeds, limit insect and other pest infestations. While it may come as a surprise, you can plant winter wheat too early due to the increased risk of snow mould, lodging and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV). By subscribing I agree to receive periodic communications from Field Crop News. The crop is planted in the early fall sothat the land generally does not have to be worked in the earlyspring when it is often too wet, and when there is a danger ofdamaging the soil structure. Winter Wheat Establishment: It’s All in the Details, on Winter Wheat Establishment: It’s All in the Details, OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 6, 2018, Strip-Till at Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show 2018, Identifying Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Winter Wheat, True Armyworm and Cereal Leaf Beetle in Cereals, Great Lakes and Maritimes Pest Monitoring Network. 2015. The definition of soil health by the USDA-NRCS “soil health is the continued capacity of a soil to function as a vital, living ecosystem that sustains, plants, animals, and humans.”.